The City of Elgin, Oklahoma's post office was established in April 1902 as "Ceegee", after prominent Oklahoma City developer Charles G. Jones. The office's name was changed to Elgin in July of that year after objections from the U.S. Post Office Department. The city grew and developed as the result of the Oklahoma City and Western Railroad's construction from Chickasha to Lawton between 1901 and 1903. The railroad eventually turned into the St. Louis and San Francisco railway. Progress continued in the community through the twentieth century, with agriculture as the main source of economic support. By 1915, Elgin had a grain association, two grain elevators and a telephone exchange, and the surrounding areas were also enjoying some oil and gas activity. Elgin was later considered for the Fort Sill Artillery School though its southern neighbor, Lawton, was selected and is still home to Fort Sill and the U.S. Army Artillery School. As Fort Sill grew, Elgin became open to other government opportunities, and was eventually selected for a Department of Defense manufacturing plant, which broke ground in 2007.
Growth of the town and its residents started slowly, with only 178 people living in Elgin in 1910, and 181 in 1920. The population increased more rapidly over the next few decades, with population over 1,200 in 2000. In 2013, Elgin had an estimated population of 2,751 people. Elgin enjoys a strong real estate market supported by the civil service and military families in the area, and their school system has grown to accommodate the population, and now totes the luxury of a high-quality academic school with the benefits of extra curricular activities of a larger town.